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mysql复习秘籍

August 17, 2018 • Read: 966 • mysql习题阅读设置

mysql复习
一:复习前的准备
1:确认你已安装wamp
2:确认你已安装ecshop,并且ecshop的数据库名为shop

二    基础知识:
1.数据库的连接
mysql -u -p -h
-u 用户名
-p 密码
-h host主机

2:库级知识
2.1 显示数据库: show databases;
2.2 选择数据库: use dbname;
2.3 创建数据库: create database dbname charset utf8;
2.3 删除数据库: drop database dbname;

3: 表级操作:
3.1 显示库下面的表
show tables;

3.2 查看表的结构: 
desc tableName;

3.3 查看表的创建过程: 
show create table  tableName;

3.4 创建表:
 create table tbName (
列名称1 列类型 [列参数] [not null default ],
....列2...
....
列名称N 列类型 [列参数] [not null default ]
)engine myisam/innodb charset utf8/gbk


3.4的例子:
create table user (
    id int auto_increment,
    name varchar(20) not null default '',
    age tinyint unsigned not null default 0,
   index id (id)
   )engine=innodb charset=utf8;
注:innodb是表引擎,也可以是myisam或其他,但最常用的是myisam和innodb,
charset 常用的有utf8,gbk;


3.5 修改表
3.5.1    修改表之增加列:
alter table tbName 
add 列名称1 列类型 [列参数] [not null default ] #(add之后的旧列名之后的语法和创建表时的列声明一样)

3.5.2    修改表之修改列
alter table tbName
change 旧列名  新列名  列类型 [列参数] [not null default ]
(注:旧列名之后的语法和创建表时的列声明一样)

3.5.3    修改表之减少列:
alter table tbName 
drop 列名称;


3.5.4    修改表之增加主键
alter table tbName add primary key(主键所在列名);
例:alter table goods add primary key(id)
该例是把主键建立在id列上

3.5.5    修改表之删除主键
alter table tbName drop primary key;

3.5.6    修改表之增加索引
alter table tbName add [unique|fulltext] index 索引名(列名);

3.5.7    修改表之删除索引
alter table tbName drop index 索引名;

3.5.8    清空表的数据
truncate tableName;

4:列类型讲解
列类型:
        整型:tinyint (0~255/-128~127) smallint (0~65535/-32768~32767) mediumint int bigint (参考手册11.2)
        参数解释:
        unsigned 无符号(不能为负)  zerofill 0填充  M 填充后的宽度
        举例:tinyint unsigned;
             tinyint(6) zerofill;   
数值型
        浮点型:float double
        格式:float(M,D)  unsigned\zerofill;


字符型
        char(m) 定长
        varchar(m)变长
        text

列          实存字符i        实占空间            利用率

char(M)      0<=i<=M            M                i/m<=100%

varchar(M)    0<=i<=M          i+1,2             i/i+1/2<100%
    

               year       YYYY    范围:1901~2155. 可输入值2位和4位(如98,2012)
日期时间类型   date       YYYY-MM-DD 如:2010-03-14
               time       HH:MM:SS    如:19:26:32
               datetime   YYYY-MM-DD  HH:MM:SS 如:2010-03-14 19:26:32
               timestamp  YYYY-MM-DD  HH:MM:SS 特性:不用赋值,该列会为自己赋当前的具体时间 



5:增删改查基本操作

5.1 插入数据 
    insert into 表名(col1,col2,……) values(val1,val2……); -- 插入指定列
    insert into 表名 values (,,,,); -- 插入所有列
    insert into 表名 values    -- 一次插入多行 
    (val1,val2……),
    (val1,val2……),
    (val1,val2……);


5.3修改数据
    update tablename 
    set 
    col1=newval1,  
    col2=newval2,
    ...
    ...
    colN=newvalN
    where 条件;

5.4,删除数据    delete from tablenaeme where 条件;

5.5,    select     查询

  (1)  条件查询   where  a. 条件表达式的意义,表达式为真,则该行取出
               b.  比较运算符  = ,!=,< > <=  >=
                           c.  like , not like ('%'匹配任意多个字符,'_'匹配任意单个字符) 
                in , not in , between and
                           d. is null , is not null            
  (2)  分组       group by 
            一般要配合5个聚合函数使用:max,min,sum,avg,count
  (3)  筛选       having
  (4)  排序       order by
  (5)  限制       limit



6:    连接查询

6.1, 左连接
    .. left join .. on
    table A left join table B on tableA.col1 = tableB.col2 ; 
  例句:
  select 列名 from table A left join table B on tableA.col1 = tableB.col2
2.  右链接: right join
3.  内连接:  inner join

左右连接都是以在左边的表的数据为准,沿着左表查右表.
内连接是以两张表都有的共同部分数据为准,也就是左右连接的数据之交集.

7    子查询
  where 型子查询:内层sql的返回值在where后作为条件表达式的一部分
  例句: select * from tableA where colA = (select colB from tableB where ...);
  
  from 型子查询:内层sql查询结果,作为一张表,供外层的sql语句再次查询
  例句:select * from (select * from ...) as tableName where ....

  
8: 字符集
  客服端sql编码 character_set_client
  服务器转化后的sql编码 character_set_connection
  服务器返回给客户端的结果集编码     character_set_results
  快速把以上3个变量设为相同值: set names 字符集

   存储引擎 engine=1\2
  1 Myisam  速度快 不支持事务 回滚
  2 Innodb  速度慢 支持事务,回滚
  
  ①开启事务          start transaction
  ②运行sql;          
  ③提交,同时生效\回滚 commit\rollback

  触发器 trigger
  监视地点:表
  监视行为:增 删 改
  触发时间:after\before
  触发事件:增 删 改


  创建触发器语法
    create trigger tgName
    after/before insert/delete/update 
    on tableName
    for each row
    sql; -- 触发语句
    
  删除触发器:drop trigger tgName;


 索引
 提高查询速度,但是降低了增删改的速度,所以使用索引时,要综合考虑.
 索引不是越多越好,一般我们在常出现于条件表达式中的列加索引.
 值越分散的列,索引的效果越好

 索引类型
 primary key主键索引
 index 普通索引
 unique index 唯一性索引
 fulltext index 全文索引


综合练习:
连接上数据库服务器
创建一个gbk编码的数据库
建立商品表和栏目表,字段如下:

商品表:goods
goods_id --主键,
goods_name -- 商品名称
cat_id  -- 栏目id
brand_id -- 品牌id
goods_sn -- 货号
goods_number -- 库存量
shop_price  -- 价格
goods_desc --商品详细描述

栏目表:category
cat_id --主键 
cat_name -- 栏目名称
parent_id -- 栏目的父id



建表完成后,作以下操作:
删除goods表的goods_desc 字段,及货号字段
并增加字段:click_count  -- 点击量

在goods_name列上加唯一性索引
在shop_price列上加普通索引
在clcik_count列上加普通索引
删除click_count列上的索引


对goods表插入以下数据:
+----------+------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------+--------------+------------+-------------+
| goods_id | goods_name                   | cat_id | brand_id | goods_sn  | goods_number | shop_price | click_count |
+----------+------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------+--------------+------------+-------------+
|        1 | KD876                        |      4 |        8 | ECS000000 |           10 |    1388.00 |           7 |
|        4 | 诺基亚N85原装充电器          |      8 |        1 | ECS000004 |           17 |      58.00 |           0 |
|        3 | 诺基亚原装5800耳机           |      8 |        1 | ECS000002 |           24 |      68.00 |           3 |
|        5 | 索爱原装M2卡读卡器           |     11 |        7 | ECS000005 |            8 |      20.00 |           3 |
|        6 | 胜创KINGMAX内存卡            |     11 |        0 | ECS000006 |           15 |      42.00 |           0 |
|        7 | 诺基亚N85原装立体声耳机HS-82 |      8 |        1 | ECS000007 |           20 |     100.00 |           0 |
|        8 | 飞利浦9@9v                   |      3 |        4 | ECS000008 |           17 |     399.00 |           9 |
|        9 | 诺基亚E66                    |      3 |        1 | ECS000009 |           13 |    2298.00 |          20 |
|       10 | 索爱C702c                    |      3 |        7 | ECS000010 |            7 |    1328.00 |          11 |
|       11 | 索爱C702c                    |      3 |        7 | ECS000011 |            1 |    1300.00 |           0 |
|       12 | 摩托罗拉A810                 |      3 |        2 | ECS000012 |            8 |     983.00 |          14 |
|       13 | 诺基亚5320 XpressMusic       |      3 |        1 | ECS000013 |            8 |    1311.00 |          13 |
|       14 | 诺基亚5800XM                 |      4 |        1 | ECS000014 |            4 |    2625.00 |           6 |
|       15 | 摩托罗拉A810                 |      3 |        2 | ECS000015 |            3 |     788.00 |           8 |
|       16 | 恒基伟业G101                 |      2 |       11 | ECS000016 |            0 |     823.33 |           3 |
|       17 | 夏新N7                       |      3 |        5 | ECS000017 |            1 |    2300.00 |           2 |
|       18 | 夏新T5                       |      4 |        5 | ECS000018 |            1 |    2878.00 |           0 |
|       19 | 三星SGH-F258                 |      3 |        6 | ECS000019 |            0 |     858.00 |           7 |
|       20 | 三星BC01                     |      3 |        6 | ECS000020 |           13 |     280.00 |          14 |
|       21 | 金立 A30                     |      3 |       10 | ECS000021 |           40 |    2000.00 |           4 |
|       22 | 多普达Touch HD               |      3 |        3 | ECS000022 |            0 |    5999.00 |          15 |
|       23 | 诺基亚N96                    |      5 |        1 | ECS000023 |            8 |    3700.00 |          17 |
|       24 | P806                         |      3 |        9 | ECS000024 |          148 |    2000.00 |          36 |
|       25 | 小灵通/固话50元充值卡        |     13 |        0 | ECS000025 |            2 |      48.00 |           0 |
|       26 | 小灵通/固话20元充值卡        |     13 |        0 | ECS000026 |            2 |      19.00 |           0 |
|       27 | 联通100元充值卡              |     15 |        0 | ECS000027 |            2 |      95.00 |           0 |
|       28 | 联通50元充值卡               |     15 |        0 | ECS000028 |            0 |      45.00 |           0 |
|       29 | 移动100元充值卡              |     14 |        0 | ECS000029 |            0 |      90.00 |           0 |
|       30 | 移动20元充值卡               |     14 |        0 | ECS000030 |            9 |      18.00 |           1 |
|       31 | 摩托罗拉E8                   |      3 |        2 | ECS000031 |            1 |    1337.00 |           5 |
|       32 | 诺基亚N85                    |      3 |        1 | ECS000032 |            1 |    3010.00 |           9 |
+----------+------------------------------+--------+----------+-----------+--------------+------------+-------------+



三    查询知识
注:以下查询基于ecshop网站的商品表(ecs_goods)
在练习时可以只取部分列,方便查看.

1: 基础查询 where的练习:

查出满足以下条件的商品
1.1:主键为32的商品
select goods_id,goods_name,shop_price 
     from ecs_goods
     where goods_id=32;
1.2:不属第3栏目的所有商品
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods
     where cat_id!=3;

1.3:本店价格高于3000元的商品

 select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods
     where shop_price >3000;

1.4:本店价格低于或等于100元的商品
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods where shop_price <=100;

1.5:取出第4栏目或第11栏目的商品(不许用or)
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods
     where cat_id in (4,11);


1.6:取出100<=价格<=500的商品(不许用and)
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods
     where shop_price between 100 and 500;


1.7:取出不属于第3栏目且不属于第11栏目的商品(and,或not in分别实现)
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods     where cat_id!=3 and cat_id!=11;

select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods     where cat_id not in (3,11);



1.8:取出价格大于100且小于300,或者大于4000且小于5000的商品()
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods where shop_price>100 and shop_price <300 or shop_price >4000 and shop_price <5000;



1.9:取出第3个栏目下面价格<1000或>3000,并且点击量>5的系列商品
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price,click_count from ecs_goods where
cat_id=3 and (shop_price <1000 or shop_price>3000) and click_count>5;

1.10:取出第1个栏目下面的商品(注意:1栏目下面没商品,但其子栏目下有)
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price,click_count from ecs_goods
     where cat_id in (2,3,4,5);

1.11:取出名字以"诺基亚"开头的商品
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods     where goods_name like '诺基亚%';


1.12:取出名字为"诺基亚Nxx"的手机
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods  
   where goods_name like '诺基亚N__';


1.13:取出名字不以"诺基亚"开头的商品
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price from ecs_goos
     where goods_name not like '诺基亚%';

1.14:取出第3个栏目下面价格在1000到3000之间,并且点击量>5 "诺基亚"开头的系列商品
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods where 
cat_id=3 and shop_price>1000 and shop_price <3000 and click_count>5 and goods_name like '诺基亚%';


select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price  from ecs_goods where 
shop_price between 1000 and 3000 and cat_id=3  and click_count>5 and goods_name like '诺基亚%';


1.15 一道面试题
有如下表和数据,查出num>=20 and num<=39的数字,
并且,把num值处于[20,29]之间,显示为20
num值处于[30,39]之间的,显示30

mian表
+------+
| num  |
+------+
|    3 |
|   12 |
|   15 |
|   25 |
|   23 |
|   29 |
|   34 |
|   37 |
|   32 |
|   45 |
|   48 |
|   52 |
+------+

1.16 练习题:
把good表中商品名为'诺基亚xxxx'的商品,改为'HTCxxxx',
提示:大胆的把列看成变量,参与运算,甚至调用函数来处理 .
substring(),concat()


2    分组查询group:
2.1:查出最贵的商品的价格
select max(shop_price) from ecs_goods;

2.2:查出最大(最新)的商品编号
select max(goods_id) from ecs_goods;

2.3:查出最便宜的商品的价格
select min(shop_price) from ecs_goods;

2.4:查出最旧(最小)的商品编号
select min(goods_id) from ecs_goods;

2.5:查询该店所有商品的库存总量
select sum(goods_number) from ecs_goods;

2.6:查询所有商品的平均价
 select avg(shop_price) from ecs_goods;

2.7:查询该店一共有多少种商品
 select count(*) from ecs_goods;


2.8:查询每个栏目下面
最贵商品价格
最低商品价格
商品平均价格
商品库存量
商品种类
提示:(5个聚合函数,sum,avg,max,min,count与group综合运用)
select cat_id,max(shop_price) from ecs_goods  group by cat_id;


3 having与group综合运用查询:
3.1:查询该店的商品比市场价所节省的价格
select goods_id,goods_name,market_price-shop_price as j 
     from ecs_goods ;


3.2:查询每个商品所积压的货款(提示:库存*单价)
select goods_id,goods_name,goods_number*shop_price  from ecs_goods

3.3:查询该店积压的总货款
select sum(goods_number*shop_price) from ecs_goods;

3.4:查询该店每个栏目下面积压的货款.
select cat_id,sum(goods_number*shop_price) as k from ecs_goods group by cat_id;

3.5:查询比市场价省钱200元以上的商品及该商品所省的钱(where和having分别实现)
select goods_id,goods_name,market_price-shop_price  as k from ecs_goods
where market_price-shop_price >200;

select goods_id,goods_name,market_price-shop_price  as k from ecs_goods
having k >200;

3.6:查询积压货款超过2W元的栏目,以及该栏目积压的货款
select cat_id,sum(goods_number*shop_price) as k from ecs_goods group by cat_id
having k>20000

3.7:where-having-group综合练习题
有如下表及数据
+------+---------+-------+
| name | subject | score |
+------+---------+-------+
| 张三 | 数学    |    90 |
| 张三 | 语文    |    50 |
| 张三 | 地理    |    40 |
| 李四 | 语文    |    55 |
| 李四 | 政治    |    45 |
| 王五 | 政治    |    30 |
+------+---------+-------+

要求:查询出2门及2门以上不及格者的平均成绩

## 一种错误做法
mysql> select name,count(score<60) as k,avg(score) from stu group by name having k>=2;
+------+---+------------+
| name | k | avg(score) |
+------+---+------------+
| 张三     | 3 |    60.0000 |
| 李四     | 2 |    50.0000 |
+------+---+------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select name,count(score<60) as k,avg(score) from stu group by name;
+------+---+------------+
| name | k | avg(score) |
+------+---+------------+
| 张三     | 3 |    60.0000 |
| 李四     | 2 |    50.0000 |
| 王五     | 1 |    30.0000 |
+------+---+------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select name,count(score<60) as k,avg(score) from stu group by name having k>=2;
+------+---+------------+
| name | k | avg(score) |
+------+---+------------+
| 张三     | 3 |    60.0000 |
| 李四     | 2 |    50.0000 |
+------+---+------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

#加上赵六后错误暴露
mysql> insert into stu 
    -> values 
    -> ('赵六','A',100),
    -> ('赵六','B',99),
    -> ('赵六','C',98);
Query OK, 3 rows affected (0.05 sec)
Records: 3  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

#错误显现
mysql> select name,count(score<60) as k,avg(score) from stu group by name having k>=2;
+------+---+------------+
| name | k | avg(score) |
+------+---+------------+
| 张三 | 3 |    60.0000 |
| 李四 | 2 |    50.0000 |
| 赵六 | 3 |    99.0000 |
+------+---+------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

#正确思路,先查看每个人的平均成绩
mysql> select name,avg(score) from stu group by name;
+------+------------+
| name | avg(score) |
+------+------------+
| 张三 |    60.0000 |
| 李四 |    50.0000 |
| 王五 |    30.0000 |
| 赵六 |    99.0000 |
+------+------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> # 看每个人挂科情况
mysql> select name,score < 60 from stu;
+------+------------+
| name | score < 60 |
+------+------------+
| 张三 |          0 |
| 张三 |          1 |
| 张三 |          1 |
| 李四 |          1 |
| 李四 |          1 |
| 王五 |          1 |
| 赵六 |          0 |
| 赵六 |          0 |
| 赵六 |          0 |
+------+------------+
9 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> #计算每个人的挂科科目
mysql> select name,sum(score < 60) from stu group by name;
+------+-----------------+
| name | sum(score < 60) |
+------+-----------------+
| 张三 |               2 |
| 李四 |               2 |
| 王五 |               1 |
| 赵六 |               0 |
+------+-----------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

#同时计算每人的平均分
mysql> select name,sum(score < 60),avg(score) as pj from stu group by name;
+------+-----------------+---------+
| name | sum(score < 60) | pj      |
+------+-----------------+---------+
| 张三 |               2 | 60.0000 |
| 李四 |               2 | 50.0000 |
| 王五 |               1 | 30.0000 |
| 赵六 |               0 | 99.0000 |
+------+-----------------+---------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

#利用having筛选挂科2门以上的.
mysql> select name,sum(score < 60) as gk ,avg(score) as pj from stu group by name having gk >=2; 
+------+------+---------+
| name | gk   | pj      |
+------+------+---------+
| 张三 |    2 | 60.0000 |
| 李四 |    2 | 50.0000 |
+------+------+---------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)



4:    order by 与 limit查询
4.1:按价格由高到低排序
select goods_id,goods_name,shop_price from ecs_goods order by shop_price desc;

4.2:按发布时间由早到晚排序
select goods_id,goods_name,add_time from ecs_goods order by add_time;

4.3:接栏目由低到高排序,栏目内部按价格由高到低排序
select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name,shop_price from ecs_goods
     order by cat_id ,shop_price desc;


4.4:取出价格最高的前三名商品
select goods_id,goods_name,shop_price from ecs_goods order by shop_price desc limit 3;



4.5:取出点击量前三名到前5名的商品
select goods_id,goods_name,click_count from ecs_goods order by click_count desc limit 2,3;

5    连接查询
5.1:取出所有商品的商品名,栏目名,价格
select goods_name,cat_name,shop_price from 
ecs_goods left join ecs_category
on ecs_goods.cat_id=ecs_category.cat_id;

5.2:取出第4个栏目下的商品的商品名,栏目名,价格
select goods_name,cat_name,shop_price from 
ecs_goods left join ecs_category
on ecs_goods.cat_id=ecs_category.cat_id
where ecs_goods.cat_id = 4;



5.3:取出第4个栏目下的商品的商品名,栏目名,与品牌名
select goods_name,cat_name,brand_name from 
ecs_goods left join ecs_category
on ecs_goods.cat_id=ecs_category.cat_id
left join ecs_brand 
on ecs_goods.brand_id=ecs_brand.brand_id
where ecs_goods.cat_id = 4;

5.4: 用友面试题

根据给出的表结构按要求写出SQL语句。
Match 赛程表
<table border="1">
    <tr>
        <td>字段名称</td><td>字段类型</td><td>描述</td>
    </tr>
        <tr><td>matchID</td><td>int</td><td>主键</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>hostTeamID</td><td>int</td><td>主队的ID</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>guestTeamID</td><td>int</td><td>客队的ID</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>matchResult</td><td>varchar(20)</td><td>比赛结果,如(2:0)</td>
    </tr>
        <tr><td>matchTime</td><td>date</td><td>比赛开始时间</td>
    </tr>
</table>

Team 参赛队伍表
<table border="1">
    <tr>
        <td>字段名称</td><td>字段类型</td><td>描述</td>
    </tr>
        <tr><td>teamID</td><td>int</td><td>主键</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>teamName</td><td>varchar(20)</td><td>队伍名称</td>
    </tr>
</table>

Match的hostTeamID与guestTeamID都与Team中的teamID关联
查出 2006-6-1 到2006-7-1之间举行的所有比赛,并且用以下形式列出:
拜仁  2:0 不来梅 2006-6-21

mysql> select * from m;
+-----+------+------+------+------------+
| mid | hid  | gid  | mres | matime     |
+-----+------+------+------+------------+
|   1 |    1 |    2 | 2:0  | 2006-05-21 |
|   2 |    2 |    3 | 1:2  | 2006-06-21 |
|   3 |    3 |    1 | 2:5  | 2006-06-25 |
|   4 |    2 |    1 | 3:2  | 2006-07-21 |
+-----+------+------+------+------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from t;
+------+----------+
| tid  | tname    |
+------+----------+
|    1 | 国安     |
|    2 | 申花     |
|    3 | 公益联队 |
+------+----------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select hid,t1.tname as hname ,mres,gid,t2.tname as gname,matime
    -> from 
    -> m left join t as t1
    -> on m.hid = t1.tid
    -> left join t as t2
    -> on m.gid = t2.tid;
+------+----------+------+------+----------+------------+
| hid  | hname    | mres | gid  | gname    | matime     |
+------+----------+------+------+----------+------------+
|    1 | 国安     | 2:0  |    2 | 申花     | 2006-05-21 |
|    2 | 申花     | 1:2  |    3 | 公益联队 | 2006-06-21 |
|    3 | 公益联队 | 2:5  |    1 | 国安     | 2006-06-25 |
|    2 | 申花     | 3:2  |    1 | 国安     | 2006-07-21 |
+------+----------+------+------+----------+------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

6    union查询
6.1:把ecs_comment,ecs_feedback两个表中的数据,各取出4列,并把结果集union成一个结果集.

6.2:3期学员碰到的一道面试题
A表:
+------+------+
| id   | num  |
+------+------+
| a    |    5 |
| b    |   10 |
| c    |   15 |
| d    |   10 |
+------+------+

B表:
+------+------+
| id   | num  |
+------+------+
| b    |    5 |
| c    |   15 |
| d    |   20 |
| e    |   99 |
+------+------+


要求查询出以下效果:
+------+----------+
| id   |    num   |
+------+----------+
| a    |        5 |
| b    |       15 |
| c    |       30 |
| d    |       30 |
| e    |       99 |
+------+----------+

create table a (
id char(1),
num int
)engine myisam charset utf8;

insert into a values ('a',5),('b',10),('c',15),('d',10);

create table b (
id char(1),
num int
)engine myisam charset utf8;

insert into b values ('b',5),('c',15),('d',20),('e',99);


mysql> # 合并 ,注意all的作用
mysql> select * from ta 
    -> union all
    -> select * from tb;
+------+------+
| id   | num  |
+------+------+
| a    |    5 |
| b    |   10 |
| c    |   15 |
| d    |   10 |
| b    |    5 |
| c    |   15 |
| d    |   20 |
| e    |   99 |
+------+------+

参考答案:
mysql> # sum,group求和
mysql> select id,sum(num) from (select * from ta union all select * from tb) as tmp group by id; 
+------+----------+
| id   | sum(num) |
+------+----------+
| a    |        5 |
| b    |       15 |
| c    |       30 |
| d    |       30 |
| e    |       99 |
+------+----------+
5 rows in set (0.00 sec)


7: 子查询:
7.1:查询出最新一行商品(以商品编号最大为最新,用子查询实现)
select goods_id,goods_name from 
     ecs_goods where goods_id =(select max(goods_id) from ecs_goods);


7.2:查询出编号为19的商品的栏目名称(用左连接查询和子查询分别)
7.3:用where型子查询把ecs_goods表中的每个栏目下面最新的商品取出来
select goods_id,goods_name,cat_id from ecs_goods where goods_id in (select max(goods_id) from ecs_goods group by cat_id);
7.4:用from型子查询把ecs_goods表中的每个栏目下面最新的商品取出来
select * from (select goods_id,cat_id,goods_name from ecs_goods order by goods_id desc) as t group by cat_id;
7.5 用exists型子查询,查出所有有商品的栏目
select * from category
where exists (select * from goods where goods.cat_id=category.cat_id);


创建触发器:

 CREATE  trigger tg2
after insert on ord
for each row
update goods set goods_number=goods_number-new.num where id=new.gid

CREATE trigger tg3
after delete on ord
for each row
update goods set goods_number=good_number+old.num where id=old.gid


CREATE  trigger tg4
after update on ord
for each row
update goods set goods_number=goods_number+old.num-new.num where id=old.gid


<h3>2012-03-25更新,添加了面试案例</h3>

兼总条贯 知至知终

最后编辑于: August 19, 2018